Noninvasive brain stimulation for addiction medicine

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Subtitle: From monitoring to modulation
Author list: Yavari F., Shahbabaie A., Leite J., Carvalho S., Ekhtiari H., Fregni F.
Publisher: Elsevier
Publication year: 2016
Volume number: 224
Start page: 371
End page: 399
Number of pages: 29
ISBN: 9780444637161
Languages: English-Great Britain (EN-GB)


Abstract

Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease with significant economical and medical burden on the societies but with limited effectiveness in the available treatment options. Better understanding of the chemical, neuronal, regional, and network alterations of the brain due to drug abuse can ultimately lead to tailoring individualized and more effective interventions. To this end, employing new assessment and intervention procedures seems crucial. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques including transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulations (tES and TMS) have provided promising opportunities for the addiction medicine in two main domains: (1) providing new insights into neurochemical and neural circuit changes in the human brain cortex and (2) understanding the role of different brain regions by using NIBS and modulating cognitive functions, such as drug craving, risky decision making, inhibitory control and executive functions to obtain specific treatment outcomes. In spite of preliminary positive results, there are several open questions, which need to be addressed before routine clinical utilization of NIBS techniques in addiction to medicine, such as how to account for interindividual differences, define optimal cognitive and neural targets, optimize stimulation protocols, and integrate NIBS with other therapeutic methods. Therefore, in this chapter we revise the available literature on the use of NIBS (TMS and tES) in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of the addiction medicine. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


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Last updated on 2019-13-08 at 00:45