Os cosmopolitas: Kant e os "temas kantianos" em relações internacionais

Journal article


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Publication Details

Author list: Nour Sckell S
Publisher: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro
Publication year: 2003
Volume number: 25
Issue number: 1
Start page: 7
End page: 46
Number of pages: 40
ISSN: 0102-8529
Languages: Portuguese-Brazil (PT-BR)


This article discusses the legacy and limits of the Kantian paradigm in
international relations. Contemporary Kantian reconstructions in
international relations emphasise the positive aspects of liberal and
institutional ideas, although they restrict themselves to the analysis
of principles, and do not analyse what impedes the realisation of these
principles. The first part of the paper analyses juridical principles
that Kant established as conditions for peace: 1) Pacification of
international order depends on democratisation of internal order; 2)
Relations between states must be subject to international law; 3)
Individuals must be considered as world citizens, according to
cosmopolitan law. The second part shows how these principles have
defined and oriented the pacifist movement as well as so-called
"utopian-idealism" in the between-wars period. Further, it analyses
realist criticism of those principles in post-war periods, according to
which: 1) Democracy in internal order does not influence peace in
international order; 2) Peace in international relations can be assured
not by international law, but by military alliances; 3) Cosmopolitan
ideals "moralise" international relations, transforming political
conflict into a contention between "good" and "evil". Finally, it
investigates how contemporary analyses orient themselves to Kantian
principles, as opposed to realism (reason of state). This shows that
this paradigm, while necessary, is not sufficient for analyses of
international relations, since it does not consider the affirmation of
principles in the analyses of hegemonic relations that characterize the
international scene.


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